Forty-five per cent of India’s rural population is without electricity and over 85 per cent is dependent on biomass to meet its cooking needs. Projections suggest that if the present trends continue, a large section of India’s rural population will remain without access to modern energy services even in 2030. It also follows that energy access is not only a critical component for reducing rural poverty and drudgery but it is also one of the fundamental conditions for holistic rural development. The book takes a critical look at the present energy policy and addresses ways to improve energy penetration. In doing so it encourages the use of renewable energy as an alternate medium, challenging the traditional power proponents.