This report summarizes the current state of water pollution and water pollution management strategies in the People's Republic of China (PRC). It also provides specific recommendations for implementing market-based policy instruments, such designed to mitigate water pollution and its negative effects. Market-based instruments such as water quality trading, fees and taxation, and public-private partnerships, have been tested internationally and in the PRC, and may be used as guide in implementing positive environmental policy reforms in the country. Success with such instruments provides a blueprint for developing more sophisticated water pollution control strategies using policy innovations to achieve greater benefits at lower costs. The Asian Development Bank is providing technical assistance to aid the government in its quest to identify the best possible options for ensuring clean water for its citizens. Experiences gained in the PRC can be relevant to practitioners in the other developing countries as well.