For the last hundred years oil has made the world go round. Now, in a new century of tough oil, we face profound questions. How will high-carbon patterns of life be restructured in a de-energized world? What are the implications of de-globalization for social futures? How will scarce energy be distributed? What levels of income and well-being are likely? In this groundbreaking book, John Urry shows how the twentieth century created a mirage of unlimited future growth that masked its limits. He considers the nature of an oil-dependent world facing energy descent and what lessons can be learnt from past energy-constrained societies. With no large-scale plan B to energize and mobilize societies, Urry assesses the likelihood of some very different futures for this century.