This is the eBook version of the printed book. This Element is an excerpt from Brains: How They Seem to Work (9780137055098) by Dale Purves. Available in print and digital formats. Why the conventional explanations of how brains work is wrong--and a far more promising direction for research. The conventional conception of how brains work has not been substantiated despite an effort that now spans 50 years. When a path in science is pursued for this long without the emergence of a deeper understanding of the issue being addressed, doubts are usually warranted.