The readers: a Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, PhD,professor A.N. Danilov, PhD, professors Y.A. Gousev, A.N. Elsukov, P.G.Martysuk. An eternally actual problem of Good and Evil is considered in the context of a great idea of an ancient Greek thinker Protagoras, the author of the Constitution of one of the first world democracies, a founder of social philosophy, a contemporary of Socrates. Unfortunately, the sense of his doctrine, enclosed in the formula “man is the measure of all things”, has not yet investigated enough and estimated at its true worth in proportion to significance for the fate of man and the mankind. In the suggested publication this idea is being uncovered as a measured principle of a social reality construction, and internal antipathy of man’s measure– as the main source of self-movement of individual and social forms of people’s life, the main reason of their achievements and failure. The book is intended for researchers in the humanities and natural sciences, teachers, graduate students, students – everyone who is interested in what is happening in our extremely unsettled world and why.