Is government justified? This perennial question is central to political philosophy and has never been more alive than at the present time, in the midst of continuing political and social upheaval worldwide. This collection of new essays by thirteen philosophers addresses questions of political authority in light of recent work in political theory. Whether supporters or critics of the state, the authors make their arguments using up-to-date analytical tools, such as game and decision theory, and the hindsight provided by modern history. For and Against the State will be an important collection for students of philosophy, politics, economics, and history.