Human Conflict distinguishes between "effective" and "ineffective" forms of face-to-face interaction in cases where agreement, disagreement, understanding, or misunderstanding prevail. This well-researched study of miscommunication seeks to identify the basic dynamics at work in encounters that somehow fall short of success in a particularly telling or striking manner. Following an in-depth look at the interplay of cognitive appraisals, value orientations, and social identity in the construction of everyday reality, the book then analyzes social constructions that contribute to a wider ability to fashion working agreements and mutual understanding. It also examines a wide spectrum of encounters where pairs reporting "hurt and harm" find themselves mutually engaged in strategic mechanisms of repair, renewal, and restoration. Scholars of conflict study, mediators, and others interested in the cognitive processes behind agreement and understanding will want to read this book.