Iranian politics has been marked by sharp ideological divisions and infighting. These divides, kept largely out of public view until the 1990s, came to greater light with the contested 2009 presidential elections. To explain the diverse and complex forces that led to this event and that animate Iran’s current fractured society and polity, author Shireen T. Hunter looks beyond the battle between the forces of reform and reaction, democracy and dictatorship, and considers the historic forces that created the conditions faced by Iran since the revolution. Iran Divided: The Historic Roots of Iranian Debates on Identity, Culture, and Governance in the 21st Century explains historical and political factors and their relevance to Iran today, shedding light on the forces behind Iranian politics and society. This book discusses:historical roots of Iran’s current divisions and debates;Iran versus Islam;secularism versus religion;constitutionalism versus Islamic government;fundamental issues of identity, culture, and governance;aging of the revolutionary coalition;development of new elites;experiences of the Islamic republic;and new international conditions moving the country beyond old divides and ideological rifts toward a new national consensus.A comprehensive survey, the book will be an indispensable tool to any student seeking to understand the Islamic Republic of Iran and its standing in the world today.