The first volume of Ladies in the Laboratory provided a systematic survey and comparison of the work of nineteenth-century American and British women in scientific research. Companion volumes focused on women scientists from Western Europe and the former British colonial territories of South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. In Ladies in the Laboratory IV, Mary R.S. Creese expands her scope to include the contributions of nineteenth-century women of Imperial Russia. Many of these women believed that science was the key to social progress, and the great advances in scientific research—work in which Russians had leading roles—made scientific training especially attractive. Featuring biographical sketches of more than 120 women, this volume covers individuals whose scientific research encompassed medicine, chemistry, zoology, botany, and paleontology. Organized into chapters by field, the entries provide details about the personal backgrounds as well as professional achievements of these remarkable women. A well-organized blend of individual life stories and quantitative information, this volume is for everyone interested in nineteenth century science. The stories of these women make for fascinating reading and serve as a valuable source for those who want to learn more about the history of women in science and medicine as well as nineteenth-century Russian history.