Students of language, linguistics, literary theory, translation studies, comparative literature. On its first publication in 1975, 'After Babel' quickly established itself as both controversial and seminal. George Steiner was the first since the eighteenth century to present a systematic investigation of the phenomenology and processes of translation both inside and between languages. Taking issue with the principal emphasis of modern linguistics, he finds the root of the 'Babel problem' in our deep instinct for privacy and a unique body of shared secrecy. With this provocative thesis he analyses every aspect of translation, from fundamental conditions of interpretation to the most intricate of linguistic constructions.