Markets and Malthus: Population, Gender, and Health in Neo-liberal Times explores the ideas and institutions that were framed at the 1994 United Nations population conference in Cairo and traces their trajectories sixteen years down the line. Why were Third World feminists profoundly critical of the Cairo consensus and process? How has the health of people around the world been affected by neo-liberal economic policies? What have these meant for women’s rights, including reproductive rights? The book presents detailed case studies from various countries ranging from India and China, to Egypt, Tanzania, Uganda, and across Africa to Argentina, Peru, and throughout Latin America, as well as overarching themed essays. From the politics of abortion and immigration to rising levels of fundamentalist violence and sex selective abortions, the volume explores a range of issues from several vantage points. It offers startling new insights into these issues by linking them to neo-liberal economic policies that have profoundly shaped health policies globally. This book is essential reading for students of gender studies, public health, and demography, as well as policy-makers and activists.