The new volume takes an interdisciplinary look at current technical challenges and recent developmental trends in microbial biotechnology. It covers an avalanche of new information available through research by focusing on a broad spectrum of issues on different microorganisms and their recent applications and implications in agriculture, soil science and forestry, industry, and public health and medicine. Microbes present in our immediate environment have a direct or indirect influence leading to either a harmful or beneficial effect. Microbial Biotechnology: Technological Challenges and Developmental Trends is divided into four major sections that focus on Part I: Antimicrobial Agents: Role and Applications in Medicine and Health Care Part II: Role of Microorganisms in Agriculture and Plant Biotechnology Part III: Microbial Enzymes and Their Potential Industrial Applications Part IV: Microorganisms in Environment: Role and Industrial Applications Topic include organic chemistry, biomass conversion, optimal production processes for different microbes, screening methods, and application of omics approaches such as (meta) genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, or other biotechnology tools, to provide a deeper understanding of the microbial-based new and emerging products, trends, processes, and technologies. The chapters present unbiased original research results on microbes by incorporating case studies wherever appropriate. Providing research findings applicable to the development of new methodologies, applications, and technologies, the book will be a valuable resource for people working in various fields of microbiology.