Sayyid Ahmad Barailvi (1786–1831), the man who first propagated and led jihad during the 19th century in the then North-West Frontier, perceived and initially led it as a purely reformist movement in northern India. Reform and jihad were intended to purify and protect the Indian Muslims from innovations and the atrocities of the British and Sikhs, respectively. Relating the history of the movement, the book takes perspectives from the immediate localities of the Pukhtun region and elaborates on the reasons for the failure of the movement. It assesses the social, political, religious, and economic impact of jihad on the Pukhtun region and discusses whether Barailvi’s movement is solely responsible for the present-day jihadi mindset, as some authors argue. The book uses historical information, narratives, and perspectives from original texts written in regional languages and transliterated texts from Pukhtu.