Knowledge in microbiology is growing exponentially through the determinationof genomic sequences of hundreds of microorganisms and the invention of newtechnologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, to deal with this avalanche of information. These genomic data are now exploited in thousands of applications, ranging from medicine, agriculture, organic chemistry, public health, and biomassconversion, to biomining. Microbial Biotechnology focuses on uses of major societal importance, enabling an in-depth analysis of these critically important applications. Some, such as wastewater treatment, have changed only modestly overtime; others, such as directed molecular evolution, or "green" chemistry, are ascurrent as today’s headlines. Author has endeavored to discuss up-to-date information of their area(s) of expertise and have kindly spared valuable time and knowledge. The information compiled will prove helpful to those interested in biotechnology.