This book summarizes the results achieved so far by application of various biological systems (including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) involved in the pathomechanisms and early diagnosis of periparturient diseases as specific biomarkers of disease in cattle. These emerging technologies help to extensively enhance our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of periparturient diseases of transition dairy cows. The book includes a chapter dedicated to ‘omics’ sciences and one that discusses the myths established in animal and veterinary sciences in recent decades and emerging, new paradigms. The diseases discussed include metritis, mastitis, laminitis, ketosis, rumen acidosis, periparturient immunosuppression, gastrointestinal microbiota and their involvement in disease, infertility, fatty liver, milk fever, and retained placenta. This book is intended for academics, veterinarians, animal nutritionists, researchers, and graduate students working in the field of ‘omics sciences’ with a special interest in dairy cattle health.