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This book examines how the economic performance of immigrants is shaped by national and urban social institutions. In the United States, particularly in the high-immigration cities, most immigrant-origin groups have significantly lower earnings than do their counterparts in Canadian or Australian cities. Immigration policy is not a factor, however; in fact U.S. immigrants?in particular origin groups?are not less skilled. American institutions, including education, labor market structures, and social welfare, all reflect greater individualism and all contribute to the potential for inequality. Resulting higher poverty rates for America's immigrants explains their more extensive use of its weaker welfare system. Jeffrey Reitz's social institutional approach projects the impact of institutional restructuring?past and future?on the economic performance of immigrants in these countries.