In recent times, the number of school building projects in Saudi Arabia has increased to a large extent, particularly projects undertaken by the School Building Agency (SBA). As this number has risen, the inefficiency in projects handled by the SBA has raised concerns. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons behind the inefficiency in terms of time, quality, and cost. Further, to mitigate the inefficiency, the use of project management practices by the SBA has been investigated. The beneficial aspects of project management practices have been adopted in many Western countries, and these can be implemented in developing countries, such as Saudi Arabia, to maximize the potential of these practices. Therefore, the extent of the use of project management practices by the SBA has been monitored using solutions provided by the respondents. To achieve this purpose, a detailed literature review was undertaken, followed by a structured questionnaire that was posted online for targeted respondents in order to clearly understand the present situation at the SBA and find practical solutions. In addition, a number of interviews were conducted with people working with the SBA. The goal of the research was accomplished with the identification of ten significant issues causing inefficiency in the projects undertaken by the SBA, which relate to the SBA itself, as well as contractors, suppliers, consultants, rules and regulations, and other issues. Moreover, the five lowest uses of project management practices on projects undertaken by the SBA were identified. Lastly, the ten most effective methods to enhance the performance of SBA projects were studied. Finally, this study culminated in specific recommendations to SBA top management to enhance the efficiency of its projects and optimize the use of project management practices within the organization.