This state-of-knowledge review provides a synthesis of the effects of fire on cultural resources, which can be used by fire managers, cultural resource (CR) specialists, and archaeologists to more effectively manage wildland vegetation, fuels, and fire. The goal of the volume is twofold: (1) to provide cultural resource/archaeological professionals and policy makers with a primer on fuels, fire behavior, and fire effects to enable them to work more effectively with the fire management community to protect resources during fuels treatment and restoration projects and wildfire suppression activities; and (2) to provide fire and land management professionals and policy makers with a greater understanding of the value of cultural resource protection and the methods available to evaluate and mitigate risks to CR. The synthesis provides a conceptual fire effects framework for planning, managing, and modeling fire effects (chapter1) and a primer on fire and fuel processes and fire effects prediction modeling (chapter 2). A synthesis of the effects of fire on various cultural resource materials is provided for ceramics (chapter 3), lithics (chapter 4), rock art (chapter 5), historic-period artifacts/materials (chapter 6), and below-ground features (chapter 7). Chapter 8 discusses the importance of cultural landscapes to indigenous peoples and emphasizes the need to actively involve native people in the development of collaborative management plans. The use and practical implications of this synthesis are the subject of the final chapter (chapter 9).
Chapter 6 * Fire Effects on Materials of the Historic Period * Types of Fire Damage * Historic Structures * Native Materials Structures * Structures Using Manufactured Materials * Historic Artifacts * Glass * Metal * Miscellaneous Artifacts * Summary * Chapter 7 * The Effects of Fire on Subsurface Archaeological Materials * Fire and Cultural Sites * Fire Effects and Subsurface Cultural Resources: Previous Research * Post-Fire Studies of Archaeological Sites * Experimental Studies Dealing with the Effects of Heat on Artifacts, Ecofacts, and Datable Materials * Thermal Alteration of Cultural Materials and Features * Dendrochronology * Radiocarbon Dating (14C) * Archeomagnetic Dating * Obsidian Hydration * Case Study: Investigation of Subsurface Heating Effects at Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico * Thermal Alteration of Ecofacts and Cultural Materials * Correlation Between Heating Effects on Archaeological Materials and Visible Changes in the Surrounding Matrix * Correspondence Between SHE Study Fire Effects and Effects Noted in Experimental Fires * Alteration of Datable Materials * Potential for Detecting Ancient Fires, and Correspondence of Surface and Subsurface Burn Severity Data * Summary and Conclusions * Postscript * Chapter 8 * Effects of Fire on Intangible Cultural Resources: Moving Toward a Landscape Approach * Fire Policy and Standard Practice in Cultural Resource Management.. Approach, Scope, and Goals * Why Consider Fire Effects on Intangible Cultural Resources? * Cultural Resources in Local and Management Community Context * Local Communities * Management Communities * Landscapes as Common Ground * Beyond Compliance and Materials Science * Steps and Stumbling Blocks in Inter-Community Collaboration * People First * One Local Community at a Time * Deal Face Up * The Sooner the Better * Go to the Source * Respect Tribal Sovereignty * Summary and Recommendations * Concluding Thoughts * Chapter 9 * Implications of Fire Management on Cultural Resources