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This book examines the politics of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the crucial period between the Russian tsar Peter the Great’s victory over Sweden at the battle of Poltava and the 1717 Silent Sejm, the Polish-Lithuanian parliament’s session which is traditionally seen as responsible for opening the way to Russian domination of Polish-Lithuanian politics. It not only challenges the accepted view of the passivity of the Lithuanian gentry and their subservience to the Russians, but also presents a clear view of how the Lithuanian economy and political system were functioning in 1710–1717, factors which have never been studied in depth in any language. Šapoka argues that much more blame for the Confederations of Vilnius and Tarnogród that had led to the Silent Sejm can be attributed to the Polish king Augustus II than is argued by the conventional scholarship. By so completely and deliberately ignoring the Commonwealth’s institutions and refusing to work within them, the Polish king provoked justified suspicion that by destroying the basis of the consensual political system, he wanted to introduce absolute monarchy.