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Examples might be multiplied without end to shew everywhere special adaptation, narrow circumscription, or representative adaptation of species in different parts of the world; but those mentioned will be sufficient to sustain the argument that animals are naturally antochthones wherever they are found, and have been so at all geological periods; that in northern regions they are most uniform; that their diversity goes on increasing through the temperate zone till it reaches its maximum in the tropics; that this diversity is again reduced in the aquaticN5 animals towards the antarctic pole, though the physical difference between the southernmost extremities of America, Africa, and New Holland, seems to have called for an increased difference between their terrestrial animals. ...To express this view still more distinctly, I should say the question to be settled is, whether for instance the wild animals which live in America originated in this continent, or migrated into it from other parts of the world; whether the black bear was created in the forests of New England and the northern states, or whether it is derived from some European bear, which by some means found its way to this continent, and being under the influence of a new climate, produced a new race; whether the many peculiar birds of North America which live in forests composed of trees different from those which occur either in Europe or Asia, whether these birds, which themselves are not identical with those of any other country, were or were not created where they live; whether the snapping turtle, the alligator, the rattlesnake, and other reptiles which are found only in America, have become extinct in the Old World after migrating over the Atlantic, to be preserved in this continent; whether the fishes of the great Canadian lakes made their appearance first in those waters, or migrated thither from somewhere else?