Schizophrenia has been the subject of intense research interest in recent years, as investigators have explored the biological bases for the disorder and for various approaches to its diagnosis and treatment. This volume focuses on three aspects of such recent research connecting basic neuroscience to schizophrenia. In one, Professors Budinger, Gur, and Pettegrew provide critical reviews of brain imaging studies as they relate to cognitive behaviour functions in schizophrenia. In the second, Professors Goldmann-Rakic, Lewis, and Tassin discuss monoamine systems and their varied role in prefontal cortical circuitry and function. In the third, Professors Deutsch, Gerfen, and Grace discuss the structure, organization, and function of the basal ganglia, as they relate to schizophrenia and the mechanisms of neuroleptic action. These papers were presented at an interdisciplinary workshop on the subject at the University of Pittsburgh, in May 1991, and the discussion between the authors and other panelists in basic and clinical sciences are included in this volume as well. The presentation of these diverse approaches in an integrated fashion provides the reader with a unique perspective and a wealth of new questions for future collaborative research.