In Neuropsychological Aspects of Substance Use Disorders, internationally recognized experts provide clinicians with the most up to date information on the neuropsychology of substance use disorders based on the empirical literature. Substance use disorders continue to be a major health concern in the United States and worldwide, although their causes and effective treatments remain elusive. Research in this area has expanded dramatically over the past two decades and provided insights into psychobiological, behavioral, and genetic factors that contribute to the onset and maintenance of substance use disorders and associated neuropsychological abnormalities. This research has provided a strong empirical foundation that has direct implications for clinical neuropsychological practice and created a need to provide the practitioner with a cogent and up-to-date summary of current developments, which is the goal of this volume. Chapters in this volume are organized into three sections that are designed to provide a translational overview of basic research and treatment findings regarding addictions, neuropsychological and neurological sequalae of the most common substances of abuse, and consideration of special issues that might confound interpretation of neuropsychological test results. Section I provides an overview of addictions, including diagnoses based on the DSM-IV, as well as the most current conceptualizations of addiction from psychobiological, genetic, and behavioral and no economics perspectives, providing the reader with a broad evidence-based conceptual framework. Section II reviews the most common substances of abuse including coverage of structural and functional neuroimaging findings, epidemiological evidence, and neuropsychological sequelae. Substances included in this section represent the most commonly encountered drugs of abuse. Section III includes coverage of the number of special topics, including specific issues related to psychiatric, medical, and neurological comorbidities. Topics included in this section represent areas of common concerns faced by clinical neuropsychologists in the interpretation and application of neuropsychological test results.