As the World Bank looks afresh at its role in the global economy, it examines how to assist troubled regions by drawing on key lessons from operations in post-conflict areas. For this series on Post-Conflict Reconstruction, the Bank chose to examine field-based case studies in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), El Salvador, and Uganda. Although the causes of the state's failure or collapse in each case are diverse, the Bank played a significant role in attempting to assist with post-conflict reconstruction. The countries also differ in the stage of Bank assistance each is receiving. The BiH case is unique within the Bank's post-conflict reconstruction experience in terms of regional characteristics, political complexity, and structure of economic governance. This study examines the evolution of the conflict and the Bank's role before, during, and after the conflict. It also analyzes which efforts were successful and which could be improved.