In the final decade of his life, Camille Pissarro abandoned his experimentation with neo-Impressionist technique and developed new forms of pictorial expression that drew more on the Impressionism of his earlier career. During this period - from 1893 to 1903 - Pissarro besides continuing to explore the landscape genre that had been his main subject matter, also began to grapple with urban scenes, and his paintings of Paris, Rouen, and the busy ports of Dieppe and Le Havre became an important component of his artistic output. At this time, Pissarro, like Monet, started to work on canvases in series, often painting six or seven canvases simultaneously and discarding one temporarily when the light, the traffic, the weather, or his mood altered. He started all of them at the scene, in the manner perfected by the Impressionists, and worked with extraordinary speed and deftness. By 1899, he lived part-time in Paris and, from his combined studio and living space, painted a series that included over forty views of the same motif. Richard Bretell and Joachim Pissarro begin this book on Pissarro's cityscapes by setting the paintings in their broad, art-historical context, tracing the tradition of the image of the city both within and prior to Impressionism and looking also at contemporary treatments of the urban scene by Vuillard, Bonnard, and Toulouse-Lautrec. The authors examine the history of the representation of the city in the literature, poetry, and philosophical writings of the nineteenth century and discuss Pissarro's knowledge of these alternative theories of the city. Using Pissarro's extensive correspondence from this period of his life, they describe the artist's attitudes toward his final works. The book also includes a catalogue of Pissarro's urban series, each one introduced by an overview covering the history of the cityscape pictured and the production, exhibition history, and early critical reception of the series. Full data on each painting follows.