This volume, the result of three days of interactive sessions among world leaders in the cardiac sciences, summarizes the most up-to-date information about development and cardiogenesis signaling in cell-based therapy, as well as developmental aspects of the formation of the embryonic heart, including the effect of mechanical load on differentiation. Other topics covered include: signaling and repair strategies, cell and gene therapy for the treatment of postmyocardial infarction, signaling, vascularization methods in engineering embryonic cardiac tissue, and molecular methods to improve survival of human embryonic stem cellderived cardiomyocytes; developmental and evolutional cardiology; novel strategies for treatment of atrial fibrillation and channel molecular physiology in remodeling and hypertrophy; multiscale modeling for metabolism and flows, including force development, mechanics of cardiac contraction, and ATP supply and demand aspects; aging, interactions, and interference aspects include fibroblast-myocyte-capillary communications, nonuniformities in contraction, calcium channels as oxygen sensors, and epigenetics of heart failure; and macroscale phenomena and clinical aspects, including various clinical aspects of modern cardiology such as navigation methods for cardiac interventions and control of cardiac function by changes in energetic demand. NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. For information on institutional journal subscriptions, please visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/nyas. ACADEMY MEMBERS: Please contact the New York Academy of Sciences directly to place your order (www.nyas.org). Members of the New York Academy of Science receive full-text access to the Annals online and discounts on print volumes. Please visit http://www.nyas.org/MemberCenter/Join.aspx for more information about becoming a member.