Providing an up-to-date and inclusive review of LIDAR, this book focuses on applications in current fields across atmospheric science. It includes coverage of laser remote sensing of the atmosphere including measurement of aerosols, water vapours, clouds, winds, and trace constituents. In addition, the book covers other interesting applications such as vegetation monitoring and altimetry. LIDAR systems include ground-based, airborne and spaceborne systems, and emphasis is placed on instrumentation and measurement techniques to enable the reader to understand what kind of lidar system is necessary for a certain application. Each chapter is self-contained and written by experts in each field.