Quantum Information Processing is a young and rapidly growing field of research at the intersection of physics, mathematics, and computer science. Its ultimate goal is to harness quantum physics to conceive - and ultimately build - 'quantum' computers that would dramatically overtake the capabilities of today's 'classical' computers. One example of the power of a quantum computer is its ability to efficiently find the prime factors of a larger integer, thus shaking the supposedly secure foundations of standard encryption schemes. This comprehensive textbook on the rapidly advancing field introduces readers to the fundamental concepts of information theory and quantum entanglement, taking into account the current state of research and development. It thus covers all current concepts in quantum computing, both theoretical and experimental, before moving on to the latest implementations of quantum computing and communication protocols. With its series of exercises, this is ideal reading for students and lecturers in physics and informatics, as well as experimental and theoretical physicists, and physicists in industry.