The chemistry of alkaloids has been captivating chemists for ages and generations. This book provides an overview of structure, properties, and history of these substances. The volume is organised into three main sections. Part 1 examines the chemically relevant aspects by means of carefully selected examples. After a structural classification, structure elucidation (including common pitfalls) is discussed. Moreover, chiroptical properties and synthetic pathways are detailed. Part 2 is devoted to biological and biochemical aspects. It rationalizes chemotaxonomy and biogenesis by means of examples (indole and 1-benzyl isoquinoline alkaloids) and presents details about the functionality of several alkaloids produced by plants and animals. Part 3 finally describes the cultural and historical significance of the most important alkaloid sources.