Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. XAnthophylls (originally phylloxanthins) are yellow pigments from the carotenoid group. THe name is from Greek xanthos, due to their contribution to the yellow band in early chromatography of leaf pigments. THeir molecular structure is based on carotenes, with additional oxidation. THus, they are carotenoids but no longer carotenes. XAnthophylls either contain hydroxyl groups and/or pairs of hydrogen atoms that are substituted by oxygen atoms. FOr this reason they are more polar than the purely hydrocarbon carotenes. DUe to this difference, the carotenes travel further than xanthophylls in paper chromatography, since the support paper is always hydrophillic.