Although the European Union (EU) and the United States have greatly increased access to their markets for products from transition economies, they continue to treat many of their new trading partners as 'nonmarket' economies and use different procedures in determining whether exporters from these countries engage in 'dumping.' Transition countries often single out antidumping actions as those most detrimental to their market access. The papers in this volume analyze EU and US procedures and practices in determining the presence of dumping for countries considered nonmarket economies. The authors conclude that the procedures used may not be significantly more stringent than those used against market economies and may not result in significant additional obstacles to trade. They also question whether the transition economies should be classified as nonmarket now that they have adopted market institutions and practices in the conduct of trade.