Tanzania's social indicators remain among the poorest in the world. This report describes the trends in the social sectors and analyzes the factors that influence these trends. These trends include the performance of the economy, government social sector spending and policy, household behavior and incomes, and demographic trends. Findings from the surveys and case studies are synthesized to provide a comprehensive picture of the demand for and supply of education, health, water and sanitation, nutrition, and family planning services. The report discusses the situation and trends in the social sector and identifies ways that the government, the private sector, and households can use their respective resources most effectively.