Many countries the world over, have become a haven for new immigrants seeking freedom and equality. Israel is among the family of nations where immigration has become part of its national heritage. In the past decade over ninety five percent of the Black Jews of Ethiopia have emigrated to Israel. This study explores the settlement of this new community examining the transition from a rural culture, steeped in religious practices to a modern Western secular society. It is the trauma of transition, the religious conflicts, the family and community changes, the racial and ethnic issues and the intervention and helping strategies by lay and professional groups that are investigated. The Ethiopian community is the first Black Jewish community to have emigrated to Israel since its independence. The challenges faced by both the host and new societies have social policy implications of a universal nature. Countries assisting emigrant families will benefit from this work. Both the complexity and guidelines for effective aid to new groups are documented.