More than one billion people around the world still live in acute poverty and the earth's population is likely to double in the next forty years. Therefore, far more economic development will be required in order to achieve acceptable minimal standards of living for everyone. However, in the attempt to improve living standards, little attention has been paid to the negative effects of economic development on the environment. The challenge is to ensure that development strategies for economic growth are implemented jointly with environmental sustainability. This book explores a broad range of practical issues related to environmental management, including wealth creation, institutions, equity, energy, trade, human health, and ecological sustainability. 'Economic development and environmental sustainability' was developed as part of a five-year program of policy seminars on economic development and environmental management, as well as economic globalization and environmental sustainability. The seminars were held in several regions including South and East Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia and were conducted by the World Bank Institute in collaboration with the Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development, Japan, and with the support of the governments of Japan and the Netherlands.