These volumes present the general parctitioners in engineering with a comprehensive discussion of technological surfaces, their interactions with environments, and the various modification techniques available to improve their performance. In each subject, applications to metals, ceramics, and polymers are emphasized. The interactions with the environment are described - corrosion (chemical), friction and waer (mechanical), and bioreactivity (physiological). Reviews of major modification schemes such as chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, laser beam interactions, chemical infusion, and ion implantation are presented. In summary, reviews of applications of the modification techniques to optimize the performances of structural components, tools, electronic devices, and implantable medical devices, manufactured out of metals, ceramic, and polymers, are described.