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ENERGY AND PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES


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Sinopse

PREFACE xv PART 1 BASIC CONCEPTS AND THEORY 1 1 Overview of this Book 3 1.1 Introduction, 3 1.2 Who is this Book Written for?, 4 1.3 Five Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency, 5 1.4 Four Key Elements for Continuous Improvement, 7 1.5 Promoting Improvement Ideas in the Organization, 8 2 Theory of Energy Intensity 9 2.1 Introduction, 9 2.2 Definition of Process Energy Intensity, 10 2.3 The Concept of Fuel Equivalent (FE), 11 2.4 Energy Intensity for a Total Site, 13 2.5 Concluding Remarks, 15 3 Benchmarking Energy Intensity 16 3.1 Introduction, 16 3.2 Data Extraction from Historian, 17 3.3 Convert All Energy Usage to Fuel Equivalent, 17 3.4 Energy Balance, 21 3.5 Fuel Equivalent for Steam and Power, 23 3.6 Energy Performance Index (EPI) Method, 29 3.7 Concluding Remarks, 32 4 Key Indicators and Targets 35 4.1 Introduction, 35 4.2 Key Indicators Represent Operation Opportunities, 36 4.3 Define Key Indicators, 39 4.4 Set up Targets for Key Indicators, 45 4.5 Economic Evaluation for Key Indicators, 49 4.6 Application 1: Implementing Key Indicators into an "Energy Dashboard," 53 4.7 Application 2: Implementing Key Indicators to Controllers, 56 4.8 It is Worth the Effort, 57 PART 2 ENERGY SYSTEM ASSESSMENT METHODS 59 5 Fired Heater Assessment 61 5.1 Introduction, 61 5.2 Fired Heater Design for High Reliability, 62 5.3 Fired Heater Operation for High Reliability, 68 5.4 Efficient Fired Heater Operation, 73 5.5 Fired Heater Revamp, 80 6 Heat Exchanger Performance Assessment 82 6.1 Introduction, 82 6.2 Basic Concepts and Calculations, 83 6.3 Understand Performance Criterion--U Values, 89 6.4 Understanding Pressure Drop, 94 6.5 Heat Exchanger Rating Assessment, 96 6.6 Improving Heat Exchanger Performance, 106 7 Heat Exchanger Fouling Assessment 112 7.1 Introduction, 112 7.2 Fouling Mechanisms, 113 7.3 Fouling Mitigation, 114 7.4 Fouling Mitigation for Crude Preheat Train, 117 7.5 Fouling Resistance Calculations, 1197.6 A Cost-Based Model for Clean Cycle Optimization, 121 7.7 Revised Model for Clean Cycle Optimization, 125 7.8 A Practical Method for Clean Cycle Optimization, 128 7.9 Putting All Together--A Practical Example of Fouling Mitigation, 130 8 Energy Loss Assessment 138 8.1 Introduction, 138 8.2 Energy Loss Audit, 139 8.3 Energy Loss Audit Results, 147 8.4 Energy Loss Evaluation, 149 8.5 Brainstorming, 150 8.6 Energy Audit Report, 152 9 Process Heat Recovery Targeting Assessment 154 9.1 Introduction, 154 9.2 Data Extraction, 155 9.3 Composite Curves, 156 9.4 Basic Concepts, 159 9.5 Energy Targeting, 160 9.6 Pinch Golden Rules, 160 9.7 Cost Targeting: Determine Optimal DTmin, 162 9.8 Case Study, 165 9.9 Avoid Suboptimal Solutions, 169 9.10 Integrated Cost Targeting and Process Design, 171 9.11 Challenges for Applying the Systematic Design Approach, 172 10 Process Heat Recovery Modification Assessment 175 10.1 Introduction, 175 10.2 Network Pinch--The Bottleneck of Existing Heat Recovery System, 176 10.3 Identification of Modifications, 179 10.4 Automated Network Pinch Retrofit Approach, 181 10.5 Case Studies for Applying the Network Pinch Retrofit Approach, 183 11 Process Integration Opportunity Assessment 195 11.1 Introduction, 195 11.2 Definition of Process Integration, 196 11.3 Plus and Minus (+/-) Principle, 198 11.4 Grand Composite Curves, 199 11.5 Appropriate Placement Principle for Process Changes, 200 11.6 Examples of Process Changes, 205 PART 3 PROCESS SYSTEM ASSESSMENT AND OPTIMIZATION 225 12 Distillation Operating Window 227 12.1 Introduction, 227 12.2 What is Distillation?, 228 12.3 Distillation Efficiency, 229 12.4 Definition of Feasible Operating Window, 232 12.5 Understanding Operating Window, 232 12.6 Typical Capacity Limits, 253 12.7 Effects of Design Parameters, 255 12.8 Design Checklist, 257 12.9 Example Calculations for Developing Operating Window, 257 12.10 Concluding Remarks, 276 13 Distillation System Assessment 28

Detalhes do Produto

    • Ano:  2014
    • País de Produção: Germany
    • Código de Barras:  9781118101162
    • ISBN:  1118101162
    • Encadernação:  CAPA DURA
    • Altura: 250.00 cm
    • Largura: 150.00 cm
    • Quantidade de Itens do Complemento:  0
    • Nº de Páginas:  536

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