Contents - 1. Introduction William J. Callahan and David Higgs; 2. The French church Olwen Hufton; 3. The Spanish church William J. Callahan; 4. The Portuguese church David Higgs; 5. The Italian churches Mario Rosa; 6. The German Reichskirche Gerhard Benecke; 7. The Austrian church Jean Berenger; 8. The Hungarian church Bela K. Kiraly; 9. The Polish church Jerzy Kloczowski; 10. Popular religion in the eighteenth century Marc Vernard.