There are a number of individual years in modern Middle East history that stand out in importance. The ledger just since the end of WWII would invariably include the following; 1948, 1956, 1967, 1973, 1982, 1991, and 1993. In each of these years war, realignment, and/or peace processes occurred, i.e., some event or series of events that engendered a dramatic and lasting period of change by causing shifts in the balance of power and/or ideological and perceptual transformations in the region. At no time, however, was dramatic and all-encompassing change more apparent in the Middle East in the post-WWII era than in 1979, so much so that, in my opinion, future Middle East scholars will conclude that the year 1979 constituted a, if not the major watershed in modern Middle East history. The happenings of 1979, particularly the signatory events, the Iranian revolution, the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, fundamentally altered the entire Middle East and had far-reaching consequences beyond the region itself.