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In 1943, Hitler ordered his forces to occupy the Italian mainland to protect the Third Reich's 'soft underbelly'. After the successful Allied landings in Salerno, the Germans fought a series of hard, reargued actions as the Allies slowly pushed north up the Apennines towards the Alps. These actions were based around the construction of a series of defensive lines; the Winter Line, the Gustav Line, the Hitler Line, the Caesar Line, the Gothic Line and the Voralpenstellung. This book explores the development and form of the six defensive lines constructed by the paramilitary Organization Todt in Italy, examining the principles of defense of these key fortifications in visual depth, and discussing their fate in the wake of the Allied onslaught.