The aim of these studies is to explore the scientific activity and learning that took place within the Ottoman empire, a subject often neglected by both historians of science and of the Ottoman world. Professor Ihsanoglu has been a pioneer in this field. In several papers he analyses the continuing tradition of Arabic science inherited by the Ottomans, together with the contributions made by the conquered Christian and incoming Jewish populations. The main focus, however, is upon the Ottoman reaction to, accommodation with, and eventual acceptance of the Western scientific tradition. Setting this in the context of contemporary cultural and political life, the author examines existing institutions of learning and the spread of ‘Western-style’ scientific and learned societies and institutions, and charts the adoption of the ideas and methods of Western science and technology. Two case studies look in particular at astronomy and at the introduction of aviation.