High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Wang Fuzhi (1619 1692) courtesy name Ernong, pseudonym Chuanshan, was a Chinese philosopher of the late Ming, early Qing dynasties. BOrn to a scholarly family in Hengyang in Hunan province in 1619, Wang Fuzhi began his education in the Chinese classic texts when very young. HE passed his civil-service examination at the age of twenty-four, but his projected career was diverted by the invasion of China by the Manchus, the founders of the Qing (or Ch'ing) dynasty. STaying loyal to the Ming emperors, Wang first fought against the invaders, and then spent the rest of his life in hiding from them. HIs refuge was at the foot of the mountain Chuanshan, from which he gained his alternative name). HE died in 1693, though it's not known for certain where or how.