A re-evaluation of the 'curious resemblance' (E. Garnett, 1932) between Tolstoy and D.H. Lawrence, this comprehensive study focuses on questions of religion, identity, partnership, and female liberation as depicted in selected stories and novels by the two authors. It argues that they offered novel solutions to these ultimate questions of human existence, contrary to the often hypocritical concepts of morality and faith prevalent in their respective societies. Though frequently dismissed as formless or clumsy, their equally novel style is brilliantly used to convey the message. The study clearly demonstrates that Lawrence's terminology proves illuminating for Tolstoy's writings. Striking affinities as well as subtle differences are thereby revealed. Thus, this comparative reading of the novels leads to a new, valuable understanding of the author's intentions and of their place in literary tradition.