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Animal experimentation has long been a controversial issue, with impassioned arguments on both sides of the debate. Increasingly it has become more expedient and feasible to develop new methods that avoid the use of animals. There is agreement on both sides that reduction and refinement of experiments on animals should be an important goal for the industries involved. 'Alternatives to Animal Testing' discusses the issues involved and approaches that can be taken. Topics include - the safety evaluation of chemicals; international validation and barriers to the validation of alternative tests; in vitro testing for endocrine disruptors; intelligent approaches to safety evaluation of chemicals; alternative tests and the regulatory framework.