Until recently, genetic, neuroanatomical, and psychological investigations on neurodevelopmental disorders were carried out independently. Now, tremendous advances across all disciplines have brought us toward a new scientific frontier; the integration of molecular genetics with a developmental cognitive neuroscience. The goal is to understand the basic mechanisms by which genes and environmental processes contribute to the development of specific structures and regions of the brain. This handbook-style volume explores these advances from the perspective of developmental disorders in children. Research on children with known genetic disorders offers insights into the genetic mechanisms that underlie neural development and organization, as expressed in variations in cognitive profiles. The contributions provide in-depth analyses of a broad range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including those resulting from whole chromosome defects (Down and Turner syndromes), those related to defects in a single gene (fragile-X syndrome) or a small number of genes (Williams syndrome), and complex genetic disorders (dyslexia, autism). Contributors from the fields of teratology and brain injury provide additional perspectives.