Between 1900 and 1950, the development of German congregations in England was characterised by sudden unprecedented changes. Growth was followed by decline, marginalisation by expansion. The situation during and after World War I contrasted sharply with that during and after World War II. Being drawn into the German Church struggle German congregations in England experienced the conflict between nationalistic and ecumenical attitudes. They were challenged in particular by Bonhoeffer's theological stance and became a meeting-place for different cultural, political and spiritual traditions. World War II saw a new emphasis on the ministry among German-speaking refugees, as well as among civilian internees and military prisoners.