Nowadays Italy is trying to shake off a do-nothing image regarding nature conservation. Fascism, war, and the unbridled consumerism of the economic miracle sent conservation into a tailspin from which it only began recovering in the 1990s. This book is an effort to document the rise, fall, and recovery of nature conservation in Italy. Part one covers the environmental degradation of Italy's wetlands, mountains, and forests due to unification, industrialization, and the rush toward modernization. Part two looks at the ups and downs of Italy's conservation movement in the 1900s - who were the players, what were their motives, where were they active, why did they succeed and sometimes fail?