The relationship between trade regime and economic growth is a topical policy issue today. For example, African countries have, since the 1970s, continued to face economic downturn; most of the countries are poorer now than they were at the time of political independence. Singular among the widely held explanations of Africa’s economic malaise is that, in the post-independence era, the countries got wrong the nexus between trade policy and development strategy. The two main competing approaches were whether the countries should adopt import substitution strategies and build their industrial base just as Europe had done, or whether they should heed advice from the Bretton Woods institutions and WTO (formerly GATT) to pursue export promotion and free trade. This book therefore focuses on one of the controversial questions in the emerging paradigm on international trade and economic development, namely the relationship between trade policy and economic growth. The question asked is, ‘which trade regime is appropriate for promoting economic growth in developing countries?’ The most extant theoretical and empirical aspects of the question are integrated smoothly with institutional and policy issues. The analysis is illustrated through examples from a sample of ten African countries, with special reference to Zambia and Malawi. The book concludes by discussing the appropriate strategy for African countries. This work is the first of its kind on this paradigm and on African countries; it is comprehensive in coverage and strikes a balance between the theory, evidence and policy issues.