Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.WAter turbines were developed in the nineteenth century and were widely used for industrial power prior to electrical grids. NOw they are mostly used for electric power generation. THey harness a clean and renewable energy sou. WAter wheels have been used for thousands of years for industrial power. THeir main shortcoming is size, which limits the flow rate and head that can be harnessed. THe migration from water wheels to modern turbines took about one hundred years. DEvelopment occurred during the Industrial revolution, using scientific principles and methods. THey also made extensive use of new materials and manufacturing methods developed at the time.